Gabrielle ‘Coco’ Chanel
Gabrielle Coco Chanel biography
Born: Saumur, France 1883
Died: Paris, France, 1971
Gabrielle Chanel’s mother died while she was still a child. Following the death of her mother, her father abandoned her and her siblings and they were forced to enter an orphanage. She spent six years in a Roman Catholic orphanage where the nuns taught her how to sew. School holidays spent with relatives encouraged her sewing interest helping her to develop her skills.
Aged 18 Chanel left the orphanage to join a circus as a cabaret singer. During her time performing Chanel was given the nickname ‘Coco’. She later commented it was a shortened version of coquette.
The circus provided Chanel with irregular work but, while staying with them, she met Etienne Balsan a French textile heir. She became Balsan’s mistress and left the circus securing a job in a tailoring shop.
Lavishing Chanel with gifts, Balsan invited her to move in with him. Accepting his offer, she enjoyed a luxurious life and started to design hats as a hobby.
In 1909 Chanel met Captain Arthur Edward Capel, a friend of Balsan’s. The two had an affair which resulted in Capel agreeing to finance the opening of her first shop.
Chanel opened her boutique in Paris at 31 Rue Cambon in 1910. A licensed hat maker, it wasn’t until two years later, when one of Chanel’s hats was modelled by actress Gabrielle Dorziat that her career started to move.
In 1913 opened a boutique in Deauville, where she sold luxe casual clothing. Two years later she opened a third boutique called Chanel-Biarritz, selling to wealthy Spanish cliental.
Chanel started to create clothing made of Jersey. Normally a material used for men, the fashion industry was outraged. For women the fabric had previously only been used for underwear. This led to Vogue commenting, ‘this designer made jersey what it is today – we hope she’s satisfied’.
Chanel was introduced to Igor Stravinsky, composer of ‘The Rite of Spring’. She invited him and his family to live with her in 1920. A year later Chanel launched her first fragrance, Chanel No. 5. The first designer scent, it went on to become one of the world’s most famous fragrances.
Vera Bate Lombardi became Chanel’s personal muse in 1925. Lombardi inspired her to create her ‘English Look’ style and introduced her into the world of the European Royals. By 1930 Chanel was so successful that the annual turnover from her boutiques exceeded 120 million francs.
A meeting with Samuel Goldwyn in 1931 saw Goldwyn pay Chanel $1 million to visit Hollywood twice a year designing costumes for MGM stars. Having successfully created her own signature style, Chanel had established the basic modern women’s wardrobe. With her designs already popular, she didn’t feel the need to change the style every year.
When the War broke out in 1939 Chanel closed her shops. Residing at the Ritz Hotel in Paris, she still maintained an apartment above her couture house. During the War she engaged in an affair with Hans Gunter von Dincklage, a German military intelligence office. With the code name Westminster, she became a Nazi intelligence operative.
Chanel moved to Switzerland in 1945 before eventually returning to Paris in 1954. Upon return Chanel re-established her couture house. Her collections didn’t receive the commercial success they had previously. Everyone was excited about Christian Dior’s ‘New Look. Chanel’s classic suit with male influences didn’t fit in with the new style. The French public were also disapproving of her past involvement with the Nazis during the war.
Continuing to design her classic collections, Coco Chanel died in 1971 aged 87. After her death Yvonne Dudel, Jean Cazaubon and Phlippe Guibourge took over the house. This was followed by Pierre Wetheimer acquiring the company. His grandson Alain Wetheimer took over in 1974. Trying to restore the label’s prestige, Wetheimer persuaded Karl Lagerfeld to end his contract at Chloé and become Chanel’s chief designer in 1983. Lagerfeld’s ability to exploit, amuse and surprise took the label back to its former glory.
Directly adopting a men’s style, Coco Chanel was the Twentieth Centuries most influential designer. Wearing masculine clothes, sporting a cropped hair cut and flaunting a sun-tan when it was considered working class, Chanel never conformed to what people wanted.
Revolutionising the use of jersey, Chanel’s classic suits were simply cut, collarless and trimmed with braid. Often accessorised with her signature pieces such as the quilted shoulder bag or strands of pearls, Chanel knew how to make costume jewellery chic.
A faultless elegance and quiet confidence was exuded by Chanel. These timeless elements show through her clothes and will always be associated with her.
Gabrielle Coco Chanel biography